Neutrinos are the fastest, simplest and least understandable particles. Only these days are scientists able to discover this energy from deep space. They have no electric charge, and their mass is so small that they cannot be measured accurately. They communicate with other matter only by gravity and weak nuclear forces. In this way, they pass through the Earth, even through lead shields. Neutrinos probably exceed the number of atoms in the universe in large numbers, but they rarely come into contact with matter. This feature allows neutrinos to escape quickly from where light cannot escape easily. The most common case is with a star collapse.
Neutrinos provide information even when the situation does not provide much data available just by observing light. The scientists obtained data on the first connection between an extragalactic object and one of the cosmic neutrinos. That happened in 2012. When an explosion occurred in the distant galaxy PKS B1424-418 10 billion years ago, then a neutrino began coming to Earth. That year, NASA’s Fermi satellite registered a dramatic illumination of the PKS B1424-418 galaxy. This is a typical galaxy with an unusually bright core.
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